The Central and Western District () located on northern part of Hong Kong Island is one of the 18 administrative districts of Hong Kong. It had a population of 251,519 in 2011. The district has the most educated residents with the second highest income and the third lowest population due to its relatively small size.Central is the central business district and the core urban area of Hong Kong. Western District covers Shek Tong Tsui, Kennedy Town and Sai Ying Pun, and is part of the City of Victoria, the earliest urban settlement in colonial Hong Kong.Зміст1 History2 Politics3 Demographics4 Geography and political subdivisions5 Admiralty6 Central6.1 Central mid-levels escalator6.2 Bank of China Tower6.3 City Hall6.4 Chinese People's Liberation Army Forces Hong Kong Building6.5 Other landmarks7 Mid-levels8 Sai Ying Pun9 Sheung Wan10 Secondary schools11 Tertiary institutions12 Transport12.1 Link12.2 Public transport13 See also14 References15 External linksHistoryCentral District, as Victoria City, was the first area of planned urban development in Hong Kong during the colonial era. The British held a land sale in June 1841, six months after the flag was raised at Possession Point. A total of 51 lots of land were sold to 23 merchant houses to build offices and warehouses. The property buyers included Dent's, Jardine's, Russell's and Olyphant's. At the time, the two roads Albany Nullah (now Garden Road) and Glenealy Nullah (now Glenealy) were mainly used by the British. The streets later became known as Government Hill.In 1857, the British government expanded Victoria City and divided it into seven districts. Those located in present-day Central and Western are: Sai Ying Pun, Sheung Wan, Tai Ping Shan, Central. The area was essentially a European area until 1860 when Chinese merchants begin buying up European properties around Cochrane, Wellington and Pottinger Streets. The Central district was the principal European business district, hence the arrival of the first major bank HSBC. The Western district was the commercial centre for Chinese businesses. When property values in the district rose, a meeting was held in February 1866 to establish a "District Watch Force" to police and protect this specific area.Tsai Jung-fang.  (1995). Hong Kong in Chinese History: community and social unrest in the British Colony, 1842-1913. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-07933-8In 1880, Shek Tong Tsui was established, followed by Kennedy Town in the 20th century. By the 1890s the majority of Hong Kong's population was concentrated in the district with about 200,000 residents, mostly in Victoria City.PoliticsПосилання на зображення Corner of Pedder Street and Des Voeux Road Central, in Central.District councils in Hong Kong are primarily consultative bodies of the HKSAR government with very limited powers, primarily restricted to building and maintaining parks, open areas, recreational and cultural activities and tourist promotion. The corresponding body for the district is Central and Western District Council.District council elections are held every four years; the last one was held on November 7, 2011, for terms beginning January 1, 2012. 15 constituency members are elected while 4 are appointed by the government. The constituency areas are smaller than the commonly used geographic areas, which are in turn based on the old 1857 and 1880 divisions.DemographicsIn Hong Kong's 2011 Census the district population was 251,519, down four percent from 261,884 in the 2001 census, and with an average of 2.7 people for each of the 89,529 households. Among the 18 districts, Central and Western has the second highest median household income in the territory (behind only Wan Chai District). In terms of average size of households, it is third smallest at 2.8 persons, behind only Wan Chai and Yau Tsim Mong District, at 2.7 each.Central and Western District has a relatively ethnically diverse population. 83% of the district's residents are Chinese, and the largest ethnic groups are Filipinos (6%) and white people (5%). 72% of the district's residents speak Cantonese as their primary language, while 14% use English and 3% use Mandarin.2011 Population Census - Fact Sheet for Central and Western District Council District, Hong Kong CensusGeography and political subdivisionsThe district is located at , based on the location of the General Post Office in Central. With an area of 12.4 km², the district occupies the northwestern portion of Hong Kong Island. It is surrounded by Wan Chai District on the east, Southern District on the south, and Victoria harbour in the north. The district also encompasses Green Island and Little Green Island, two uninhabited islands to the west of Hong Kong Island.Areas from west to east along Victoria Harbour are: Kennedy Town, Sai Ying Pun, Sheung Wan, Central, Admiralty.Neighbourhoods within the district are listed from east to west.Admiralty QueenswayCentralCentral is the business centre of Hong Kong, and many multinational financial services corporations have their headquarters there. Government Hill, the site of the government headquarters, is also in Central.Central mid-levels escalatorПосилання на зображення Central-Mid-Levels escalator, passing through Soho at Elgin StreetThe Central-Mid-levels escalator in Hong Kong is the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world. The system is long, connecting Des Voeux Road Central, in Central with Conduit Road in the Mid-levels, passing through narrow streets in Soho.The escalator runs downhill from 6 am to 10 am and uphill from 10:20 am to 12:00 am (midnight) everyday. Apart from its significance in transport linkage, it is also a tourist attraction, with many restaurants, bars, and shops lining its route.Bank of China TowerThe Bank of China Tower in Central houses the headquarters of BOCHK. Designed by I. M. Pei, the 70 storey building's height is with two masts reaching 3. Construction began in 1985 and the building was completed in 1989. It was the first building outside the United States to exceed and to exceed . It was the tallest building in Hong Kong and Asia from 1989 to 1992, when the nearby, taller Central Plaza was completed.City HallBuilt in 1962, the City Hall complex housed the old central library of Hong Kong, as well as concert halls, restaurants and a marriage registry. The conference room of the former Urban Council was also at the lower building of the City Hall.The garden at the north-western side of the complex includes a memorial to those killed in Hong Kong during World War II.Chinese People's Liberation Army Forces Hong Kong BuildingThe funnel-shaped Chinese People's Liberation Army Forces Hong Kong Building (formerly, and still commonly known as the Prince of Wales Building) housed the headquarters of the British garrison in Hong Kong until the territory's handover to the People's Republic of China on June 30, 1997. It now houses the local garrison of the People's Liberation Army and is formally known as Central Barracks, in line with PLA convention for naming barracks after the name of the locality.Other landmarks Cenotaph, Hong Kong Chater Garden Chinese People's Liberation Army Forces Hong Kong Building (formerly the Prince of Wales Building) Edinburgh Place, Hong Kong – including Queen's Pier and the Star Ferry pier Exchange Square Former Supreme Court Building Harcourt Garden Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens Hong Kong Club Hong Kong Park HSBC Hong Kong headquarters building International Finance Centre Jardine House Lan Kwai Fong Legislative Council building Lippo Centre Old Bank of China Building Peak Tram terminus St. John's Cathedral, Hong Kong St. Joseph's Church, Hong Kong St. Joseph's College, Hong Kong St. Paul's Church, Hong Kong St. Paul's Co-educational College Soho Statue Square The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Hong Kong Union Church, Hong KongПосилання на зображення The headquarters of HSBC is a landmark in the Central and Western District of Hong KongMid-levels Government HouseSai Ying Pun Sai Ying Pun Community ComplexSheung Wan The CenterSecondary schoolsArranged by alphabetical order of their full names in each category.Government-administered schools King's College Aided schools Caritas St. Francis Secondary School  Lok Sin Tong Leung Kau Kui College  Raimondi College  St. Clare's Girls' School  St. Joseph's College  St. Louis School  St. Stephen's Church College  St. Stephen's Girls' College  Ying Wa Girls' School Schools under Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) Hon Wah Middle School , St. Margaret's Girls' College, Hong Kong  St. Paul's Co-educational College  St. Paul's College International schools Carmel School  German Swiss International School  Hong Kong International School Island School  (under funding of English Schools Foundation, subsidised by government) King George V School Lycée Français International Victor Segalen Sear Rogers International School, Hong Kong Island  Sha Tin College Singapore International School South Island School West Island SchoolVocational and night schools (privately funded) Sacred Heart Canossian College of Commerce  St. Paul's Secondary Evening SchoolTertiary institutions The University of Hong Kong Caritas Francis Hsu CollegeTransportLink Route 3 (Hong Kong) Route 4 (Hong Kong)Major roads that serves the area include: Harcourt Road Connaught Road Central, Connaught Road West Queensway, Queen's Road Central, Queen's Road West Des Voeux Road Central, Des Voeux Road West Hill Road Flyover Caine Road Robinson Road Park Road Bonham Road Western Harbour TunnelPublic transportHong Kong TramwaysPeak TramMTRIsland Line: Sheung Wan Station, Central Station, Admiralty StationTsuen Wan Line: Central Station, Admiralty StationTung Chung Line: Hong Kong StationAirport Express: Hong Kong Station(franchised) bus NWFB: 2, 3A, 4, 4X, 13, 15, 15A, 15B, 15C, 18, 18P, 23, 23A, 23B, 25, 26, 30X, 43X, 46X, 66, 91, 93, 93A, 94, 94X, 590, 590A, 720, 720A, 720P, 722 Citybus: 1, 3B, 5, 5B, 5C, 5P, 5S, 5X, 6, 6A, 6X, 7, 10, 10S, 11, 12, 12A, 12M, 37A, 37B, 37X, 40, 40M, 40P, 70, 70P, 71, 71P, 75, 90, 90B, 90C, 93C, 97, 260, 347, 511, 629, 629A, 780, 780P, 788, 789, M47, N8X, N90, A10, A11, A12, E11, N11 Harbour-crossing routes : 101, 103, 104, 109, 111, 111P, 113, 115, 115P, 182, 182P, 301, 302, 305, 307, 336, 373, 373A, 601, 601P, 603, 603P, 603S, 619, 619P, 619X, 680, 680A, 680P, 680X, 681, 681P, 690, 690P, 692, 692P, 904, 905, 914, 914X, 930, 930A, 934, 935, 948, 948P, 960, 960A, 960B, 960P, 960S, 961, 962, 962A, 962A, 962B, 962C, 962P, 962S, 962X, X962, 967, 967X, 968, 969, 969A, 969B, 969C, 970, 970X, 971, 973, 973P, N121, N182, N368, N619, N680, N691See also List of buildings, sites and areas in Hong Kong Tourism in Hong KongReferencesExternal links Central and Western District Council List and map of electoral constituencies (large PDF file) Coordinates are courtesy of the GNS system of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency.